In addition to obtaining nanocomposites using a single polymer matrix, the use of polymer/polymer blends as matrix has attracted the attention of researchers. This chapter describes polymer nanocomposites with organic/inorganic network structures: nanocomposite (NC) gels and soft, polymer nanocomposites (M-NCs). The presence of functional groups on the side walls of CNTs increases the chemical reactivity between the filler and matrix, inducing to a better interface and consequently a better load transfer from the matrix to the reinforcement . The properties of nanocomposite materials depend not only on the properties of their individual parents, but also on their morphology and interfacial characteristics. However, MH alloys under repeated hydriding/dehydriding cycling suffer from a pulverization phenomenon due to a large volume mismatch between the hydride and the metal compound . ELASTOMERIC NANOCOMPOSITES Elastomeric Nanocomposites are further divided into two types: • Clay-polymer (nano-)composites • Dendrimer Nanocomposites 8. Schematic illustration for the solution blending method. The main limitations are aggregation and environmental constraints [73, 76]. We share our knowledge and peer-reveiwed research papers with libraries, scientific and engineering societies, and also work with corporate R&D departments and government entities. Xyloglucan interacted strongly with TEMPO-oxidized NFC (high storage modulus) . Besides the acid treatment, secondary particles, such as clay, have been used to improve the dispersion of carbon nanotubes and increase the electrical properties of composites containing these fillers . Possible structures of polymer nanocomposites using layered nanoclays: (a) microcomposite, (b) intercalated nanocomposite and (c) exfoliated nanocomposite . HNT is structurally much to kaolinite  and may intercalate a monolayer of water molecules, which is weakly held. Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers. These properties in addition to extremely high surface area (theoretical limit: 2630 m2/g) and gas impermeability indicate graphene’s great potential for improving mechanical, electrical, thermal and gas barrier properties of polymer nanocomposites [28, 29]. Their geometrical dimensions depend on the origin of the cellulose and hydrolysis conditions. On the other hand, TEM allows a qualitative understanding of the internal structure, spatial distribution of the various phases and views of the defective structure through direct visualization. Polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) may be defined as a mixture of two or more materials, where the matrix is a polymer and the dispersed phase has at least one dimension smaller than 100 nm . 3.4 Characterization Methods of Polymer Nanocomposite Films 36. precipitative encapsulation of polymer chains by colloidally dispersed, For more information on this source please visit the, SAXS on Polymer Clay Nanocomposites Using the N8 HORIZON, TSU Changes Nanotech Center Name To the Nanomaterials Application Center - News Item, Comprehensive Book on In-Situ Production of Polymer Nanocomposites, Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, Dept. The transfer of strain from the polymer to these new agglomerates leads to stronger shearing, which breaks them into individual particles; this step depends fundamentally on time and on the chemical affinity between the polymer and the surface of the nanoparticles [59, 78]. There is also the possibility of new properties which are unknown in the parent constituent materials. This is often done by exchanging the cations in the gallery with alkylammonium or alkylphosphonium salts (for example, dioctadecyl dimethyl ammonium bromide), typically with chain lengths longer than eight carbon atoms (C8). The replacement of inorganic exchange cations with organic ions on the gallery surfaces of smectite clays is useful to expand the clay galleries. Halloysite nanotube (HNT) is an aluminosilicate with hollow micro- and nanotubular structure . NC gels and M-NCs are synthesized by in situ free-radical polymerization in aqueous systems and in the presence of exfoliated clay nanoplatelets. Processing of carbon nanotube-based nanocomposites, layered … 3.2.1 Types of Polymer 31. They find special attention due to the unique properties such as light weight, ease of production and flexibility. The general class of organic/inorganic nanocomposites may also be of relevance to issues of bio-ceramics and biomineralization, in which in-situ growth and polymerization of biopolymer and inorganic matrix is occurring. Particularly, the faujasite-type framework is an aluminosilicate with cavities of 1.3 nm of diameter interconnected by pores of 0.74 nm, as illustrated in Figure 7. This would be one of the main differences between nanocomposites and the conventional composites . Nanocomposites. Electrostatic capacitors with a high dielectric constant and breakdown strength are desired for dielectrics to achieve a higher discharged energy density. This route creates conjugated polymers inside non-oxidizing hosts. We have developed several general synthetic routes for inserting polymer chains into host structures, and have designed many novel nanocomposites. Each method has its own advantages and drawbacks related to the purity and the presence of defects (oxygen and functional groups on the surface). Several chemical-mechanical routes have been developed to produce individual exfoliated graphene sheets, for example, mechanical exfoliation, chemical exfoliation and chemical vapor deposition [30, 31]. Polymer nanocomposites are materials consisting different types of nanofillers uniformly dispersed in the polymer matrices. Uniqueness of HNT exists in its tubular form with length up to few microns and diameter in nm range. Notable examples are automotive parts [16, 20], packaging [2, 8, 107], construction materials , biotechnology , medical devices, etc. In addition to the exceptional electrical and conductive properties, the CNTs also present excellent mechanical properties, with an elastic modulus in the order of 1 TPa and maximum tensile strength can reach 300 GPa (for CNTs free of defects) [13, 17]. An area of notable application of these materials is in the optoelectronic industry [110, 111]. conventional composites (or microcomposites), intercalated nanocomposites In the past, we have focused our efforts on creating such materials with conjugated and saturated organic macromolecules. Selected members of this class may be amenable to direct structural characterization by standard crystallographic methods. The properties of nanocomposite materials depend not only on the properties of their individual parents, but also on their morphology and interfacial characteristics. One route that has been considered for modification of carbon nanotubes is the surface treatment of these materials with a mixture of nitric and sulfuric acids (HNO3/H2SO4), which results in the formation of carboxylic acid groups (-COOH) on the surface . The primitive cell of graphene is composed of two non-equivalent atoms, A and B, and these two sub-lattices are translated from each other by a carbon-carbon distance ac-c = 1.44 Å . We are IntechOpen, the world's leading publisher of Open Access books. Shear flow caused NFC to form plate-like flocs in the suspension that accumulated near bubble interfaces. The Emergence of New Materials with Novel Properties, The Different Types of Framework Systems for Inorganic Components, Organic/Inorganic Nanocomposites and Lamellar Nanocomposites, Benefits of Studying the Interactions of Nanocomposites, Inorganic Layered Materials - Properties and Uses, The Two Types of Lamellar Nanocomposites: Intercalated Nanocomposites and Exfoliated Nanocomposites, Studying the Lamellar Class of Intercalated Organic/Inorganic Nanocomposites, Combining the Diverse Properties of Nanocomposites and Building Heterostructures of Inorganic Layers, Novel Nanocomposites Designed by the Department of Chemistry at Michigan State University. Zeolites are widely used as catalysts or catalyst supports in a variety of applications in refining and (petro)chemical industries . The SEM provides images of surface features associated with a sample. As a consequence, repeated hydrogen loading/unloading cycles produce free metal powder particles in nanoscale size. Polymer nanocomposites offer excellent opportunities to explore new functionalities beyond those of conventional materials. Exfoliated nanocomposites have maximum reinforcement due to the large surface area of contact between the matrix and nanoparticles. One main limitation is the ease of agglomeration [63, 65]. Thus, the limit of electric percolation in polymer blends is strongly influenced by the concentration of nanotubes and also by the final morphology of the blends, which in turn is a function of the composition of the blend, the compatibilizer and the processing conditions . This route creates conjugated polymers inside non-oxidizing hosts. Polymer nanocomposites can be defined as a mixture of two or more materials, where matrix is a polymer and the dispersed phase has at least one dimension less than 100 nm . This material consists of one atomic thick sheet of covalently sp2-bonded carbon atoms in a hexagonal arrangement [24, 25], as illustrated in Figure 4. The ideal design of a nanocomposite involves individual nanoparticles homogeneously dispersed in a matrix polymer. Some of the benefits are controllable particle morphology , good interfacial adhesion of the nanofillers  and high transparency [71, 72]. Micrographs obtained by transmission electron microscopy of nanocomposites with polyetherimide (PEI) and MWCNT . Due to the easiness and availability, WAXD is most commonly used to probe the nanocomposite structure [99, 100] and to study the kinetics of the polymer melt intercalation, when using layered silicates . To obtain a polymer blend or nanocomposite with the desired properties, compatibilization is an important issue. Each chapter introduces a particular characterization method, along with its foundations, and … The successful use of graphene depends on the exfoliation of bulk graphite into individual sheets. This behavior can be explained in terms of the development of a grafting-percolated nanoparticle network structure . The processing conditions may influence the dispersion state of these nanofillers in the resulting material. LaNi5/ABS after a mechanical-dry particle coating process in a tumbling mill . The NF120 by SEC is a non-destructive analysis system for wafer level packaging. Nanocomposites of an organic-modified MMT and PA6 with a residual monomer were once produced by melt blending in a torque rheometer . Graphene has sparked enormous interest in many research groups around the world and has resulted in an abrupt increase in publications on the subject. MWCNTs consist of two or more concentric cylindrical shells of graphene sheets coaxially arranged around a central hollow core. Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications. By suitable chemical and mechanical treatments, it is possible to produce fibrous materials with one or two dimensions in the nanometer range from any naturally occurring sources of cellulose . An intercalated structure, in which a single (and sometimes more than one) extended polymer chain is intercalated between the layers of the silicate, results in a well-ordered multilayer morphology with intercalated layers of polymer and clay (Figure 1(b)). Clay minerals are hydrous aluminum phyllosilicates, sometimes with variable amounts of iron, magnesium, alkali metals, alkaline earths and others cations . The structure of CNT consists of enrolled graphitic sheet, which is a planar-hexagonal arrangement of carbon atoms distributed in a honeycomb lattice [12, 13]. By Hicham Tahiri, Serageldin S. Mohamed, Herbert W. Doty, Salvador Valtierra and Fawzy H. Samuel. Global Polymer Nanocomposites Manufacturers Market Concentration Ratio (CR5 and HHI) Table 13. 3.2.2 Types of Nanofillers 32. The interfacial area creates a significant volume fraction of interfacial polymer with properties different from the bulk polymer even at low loadings of the nanofiller. There is a wide range of applications which include fiber lasers, supercapacitor, field emission devices and photovoltaics, where the combination of tunable optoelectronic properties as well as structural and chemical stability, high surface area and low mass density of nanofillers with the processability of polymers offers a new class of materials [110, 111]. The width is 3–100 nm depending on the source of cellulose, defibrillation process and pretreatment, and the length is usually higher than 1 μm . By and large, each technique has some advantages over the others and can be selected as the best method according to the conditions and applying materials . HNT as nanofiller in polymeric materials has been found to significantly increase the mechanical, thermal, non-flammability and other physical properties of the nanocomposite . For further characterization of polymer nanocomposites, the commonly used techniques are Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), rheometry , differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), thermogravimetric (TGA), thermomechanical (TMA) and dynamic modulus analysis (DMA) . Polymer nanocomposites are co mposites with a polymer matrix and f iller with at least one di mension less than 100 nm. Nanocomposites can also show unique design possibilities, which offer excellent advantages in creating functional materials with desired properties for specific applications. The TEM, AFM and SEM are also required to characterize the dispersion and distribution of nanoparticles. Alternatively, polymer can be infiltrated into 1D, 2D, 3D preform creating high content polymer nanocomposites. In the melt blending method, the nanofillers are directly dispersed into the molten polymer. As PhD students, we found it difficult to access the research we needed, so we decided to create a new Open Access publisher that levels the playing field for scientists across the world. More info. The number of particles per unit volume is a key factor determining the characteristic response of nanocomposites [82, 104]. Nanocomposites also offer the possibility to combine diverse properties which are impossible within a single material, e.g. Optimizing polymer properties by filler addition of low content has been the focus of industrial and academic research. Moreover, balanced mechanical properties, functionalities and biocompatibility of bionanocomposites provide an exciting platform for the design and fabrication of new materials for biomedical applications . The field of nanocomposites has been one of the most promising and emerging research areas. Some of the benefits of this technique are good dispersion of the nanoparticles , enhancement of the heat stability , improvement of mechanical properties [83, 84, 85, 86] and low cost-effectiveness and eco-friendly (do not use solvent). The average length is of the order of a few hundred nanometers and the width is of the order of a few nanometers . The rationale behind intercalative polymerization is that host matrices with high electron affinity can oxidatively polymerize appropriate monomers in their interior. Later, he worked as Materials Scientist in the Active and Intelligent Coatings section of SunChemical in London, UK and as Polymer Engineer at BASF Polymer Research in Ludwigshafen, Germany. There are some problems for the solution blending from the economic and environmental point of view. While SWCNTs are single graphene cylinders, MWCNTs consist of two or more concentric cylindrical sheets of graphene around a central hollow core. During mixing in the melt state, the strain that the polymer applies on the particles depends on its molecular weight and weight distribution. The addition of nanoparticles to polymer composites has led to a new generation of composite materials with enhanced and novel properties. This ability enables them to act as matrices or hosts for polymers, yielding interesting hybrid nanocomposite materials. This uniform dispersion of nanofillers can lead to a large interfacial area between the constituents of the nanocomposites . This approach gives access to a large variety of nanocomposites with many kinds of polymers and hosts. Mini-emulsion polymerization is based on the creation of monomer droplets that are dispersed in a solution in a nanoscale . (a) WAXD diffractograms and (b) TEM micrograph of a 2.5 wt% MMT-PA12 nanocomposite . Brief introduction to this section that descibes Open Access especially from an IntechOpen perspective, Want to get in touch? Polymer Nanocomposites with Different Types of Nanofiller, Nanocomposites - Recent Evolutions, Subbarayan Sivasankaran, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.81329. This book highlights the various types of polymer and nanocomposites that can be derived from biorenewable resources. This method has some drawbacks that involve parameters that are not easy to control, such as the interaction between the polymer and the nanoparticles and the processing conditions (temperature and residence time) . The main challenging characteristic of PNCs is the complex interfacial regions between the nanoparticles and polymer matrices. It consists of sheets of SiO4 tetrahedra with sheets of edge sharing AlO6 octahedral , as shown in Figure 6. By making research easy to access, and puts the academic needs of the researchers before the business interests of publishers. Contact our London head office or media team here. Different shearing types of equipment, such as a homogenizer, microfluidizer or ultra-fine friction grinder, are generally used. S. Hooshmand Zaferani, in Polymer-based Nanocomposites for Energy and Environmental Applications, 2018. One important property observed due to the incorporation of clay particles in polymers is a significant level of flame retardancy. Schematic representation of the rheological response to the increase in the number of particles per unit volume . 3.1 Introduction 29. The Raman spectra of both materials can provide much information about the exceptional 1D properties of carbon materials, such as their phonon structure and their electronic structure, as well as information about sample imperfections. In the broadest sense this definition can include porous media In some cases, this technique can be applied in solvent-free form . Use features like bookmarks, note taking and highlighting while reading Advances in Polymer Nanocomposites: Types and Applications (Woodhead … The book also addresses existing challenges for the use of polymer nanocomposites in major industrial sectors. Soft, gel and biodegradable polymer nanocomposites are also considered. Part two focuses on types of polymer nanocomposites according to matrix polymer, with polyolefin-based, (PVC)-based, nylon-based, (PET)-based and thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU)-based polymer nanocomposites discussed. WAXD, SEM and TEM results showed that the 3 and 5 wt% nanofibers with average diameter between 80 and 250 nm had exfoliated structures. Publishing on IntechOpen allows authors to earn citations and find new collaborators, meaning more people see your work not only from your own field of study, but from other related fields too. Leading publisher of Open Access is an interest in the next section briefly! 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