why is mass in b minor great

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Weimar was quite a small town with only 5000 inhabitants; yet Bach was to meet some very cultured people here. After this dramatic opening the music develops into a fugue. The Credo uses one of the old church modes (the Mixolydian). Though Saxony was fervently Lutheran Protestant, August I had converted to Catholicism in order to accept the Polish Crown, and his successor August II followed suit. It is a superlative example of Bach's concern with symmetry: Crucifixus is the central pivot and the centre of the trinity of movements concerning Christ's incarnation, crucifixion and resurrection. Some kind of Royal Title from the Dresden Court would give him the prestige he needed and felt was his due. In a society which regards Kings as divinely appointed by God, Bach would have seen no incongruity in using the same music to praise the King of Poland and the King of Heaven. The second is the Symbolum Nicenum (or the Credo). Following a Church Service in the Nikolaikirche, His Majesty was conveyed in a Chaise or Carrying Chair to the Bourse, there to accept the Greetings of the Nobility (Ritterschaft). 171 (1729) 'Gott, wie dein Name, so ist ouch dein Ruhm' ('God, Thy fame is as Thy name'). The chorus Et incarnatus est depicts an intense awe, an emotion that is deepened into despair in the Crucifixus, reworked from a chorus in a youthful Weimar Cantata, No. It’s officially known as the Mass in B Minor (BWV 232), but is better known as Johann Sebastian Bach’s Great Catholic Mass. The Christe eleison is a gentle duet for sopranos with a charming ritornello for strings. The Benedictus, apparently the vestige of a lost tenor aria, with its slow, long, graceful vocal and instrumental lines is an evocation of serene love and longing. By this time, Bach had established a wide reputation as composer, musician, organist, and as an expert in organ construction and acoustics. It was started in 1733 and completed the year before he died, by which stage he was blind. This virtuosic, concerto-like movement uses the entire orchestra to depict the jubilation of the resurrection. The performance itself demonstrates John Nelson's nonpareil mastery of conducting, especially of large scale orchestral works. Bach subsequently sent the music to his Royal Majesty, in the hopes of obtaining a position at his court. The third consists of a single movement, the Sanctus, and the fourth is entitled Osanna, Benedictus, Agnus Dei et Dona nobis pacem. Mass in B Minor – David Hill reflects on a great masterpiece. It is a publication in four parts, of which the first and second consisted of the Six Partitas for harpsichord in Part One, and the Italian Concerto and French Overture in Part Two. Its use establishes a tone of timeless nobility. The first complete performance took place in Leipzig in 1859. The second Kyrie, for four-part choir, has an intense, chromatic fugal subject. It is a publication in four parts, of which the first and second consisted of the Six Partitas for harpsichord in Part One, and the Italian Concerto and French Overture in Part Two. An extremely important reason that Bach is so good is his intense study of music itself. It might be added that thereafter there were no further records of disagreements between Bach and either the School or City authorities. Bach's magnificent Sanctus, with its exultant fugue, was written originally for Christmas Day, 1724. As in the second Kyrie, the orchestra doubles the chorus in a stile antico fugue. The first part of the Gloria, a joyous outpouring, was probably reworked from a now lost instrumental movement. At the climactic words magnam gloriam (“great glory” of God), Bach adds three trumpets with music independent of that of the chorus. The Missa Solemnis is one of the greatest Catholic Masses and one of the most powerful religious compositions of all time, in a class with Bach's Mass in B Minor and the best of Haydn and Mozart. The Mass clearly meant a great deal to Klemperer, also, who stated that "for me Bach's B minor Mass is the greatest and most unique music ever written". From 1740 until his death in 1750, Bach would become more introspective, philosophical, looking back over his varied life and compositions, and reviewing the legacy he would leave to the future – for he certainly considered this an important aspect of his art, especially as tastes in music were turning rapidly away from the baroque arts of fugue and counterpoint towards the more informal style of the rococo and classical periods. Like the Missa, the Symbolum Nicenum has its own cohesive structure. The words of the Nicene Creed were formulated by the bishops and were a statement of the most important beliefs of Christianity, being an Ecumenical Christian statement of faith accepted by the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Anglican, and major Protestant churches. In this case, the passacaglia theme is heard 13 times—the unlucky number, symbolizing the tragedy of the crucifixion. Bach's Kyrie and Gloria were, diplomatically, acceptable equally to both faiths. Furthermore, Bach took care to gain prior support from officials at the Dresden Court and leading players in the Dresden Court Capelle. Bach's magnificent Sanctus, with its exultant fugue, was written originally for Christmas Day, 1724. The performing parts were copied out in secret by members of the Bach family only, so that neither the Thomas School nor City officials would be aware of Bach's intentions. The reserved expression of the second Kyrie gives way to an extroverted style, complete with trumpets, drums and instrumental virtuosity. Some kind of Royal Title from the Dresden Court would give him the prestige he needed and felt was his due. The theme, taken from a Gregorian chant, is introduced in each of the seven voices, in this order: tenors, basses, altos, first sopranos, second sopranos, first violins, second violins. Saxony had not celebrated the enthronement of a new Elector-King for almost forty years, so the Coronation of August II was marked with dazzling celebrations throughout the Saxon Land. It is a superlative example of Bach's concern with symmetry: Crucifixus is the central pivot and the centre of the trinity of movements concerning Christ's incarnation, crucifixion and resurrection. HARRY BICKET conductorJOÉLLE HARVEY sopranoMEG BRAGLE mezzo-sopranoDANIEL TAYLOR countertenorTHOMAS COOLEY tenorMATTHEW BROOK bass-baritone MAY FESTIVAL CHAMBER CHOIR Robert Porco, directorThe May Festival Chorus is endowed by the Betsy & Alex C. Young Chair. Though this was not immediately forthcoming, after a reminder in 1736 by Bach's influential friend Count von Keyserlingk, the title of Compositeur of the Royal Court Capelle was "conferred upon Johann Sebastian Bach on the latter's most humble entreaty and because of his ability". Confiteor. By this time, Bach had established a wide reputation as composer, musician, organist, and as an expert in organ construction and acoustics. PART FOUR: Osanna, Benedictus,Osanna (repeat), Agnus Dei, Dona Nobis Pacem 171 (1729) 'Gott, wie dein Name, so ist ouch dein Ruhm' ('God, Thy fame is as Thy name'). 29 (1731), the words of which 'Wir danken dir, Gott' ('We thank Thee, O God') represent a literal German translation of the Latin text set here with such solemn nobility and assurance. For the scores being prepared could not have been destined for use in Leipzig, but clearly for St Sophia's Church Dresden where W.F. Also, the five- and six-part choruses in several movements recall earlier choral practices. There is also a preponderance of six-measure phrases, including the fugue subject. Though this was not immediately forthcoming, after a reminder in 1736 by Bach's influential friend Count von Keyserlingk, the title of Compositeur of the Royal Court Capelle was "conferred upon Johann Sebastian Bach on the latter's most humble entreaty and because of his ability". Some kind of Royal Title from the Dresden Court would give him the prestige he needed and felt was his due. Christe. The extant manuscript of the B-Minor Mass is filled with scratch-outs, corrections, revisions, and insertions. In this book George B. Stauffer explores the music and complex history of Bachs last and possibly greatest masterpiece. Prince Leopold had already spent three years (1710-13) doing the Grand Tour of Europe, first to Holland and England, through Germany to Italy, returning by way of Vienna. Furthermore, Bach took care to gain prior support from officials at the Dresden Court and leading players in the Dresden Court Capelle. The first Kyrie was composed in 1733 in commemoration of the deceased Elector of Saxony. Recording of Bach's B-Minor Mass. By this time, Bach had established a wide reputation as composer, musician, organist, and as an expert in organ construction and acoustics. While the Mass of 1733 (the Kyrie and Gloria) provided suitable music for the Royal Visit, and would subsequently lay the foundation stone for the Mass in B-Minor, Bach also had another purpose in mind for this 1733 work. The Nicene Creed is much longer than the better-known Apostles' Creed and is usually said by Christians during the celebration of the Eucharist (Mass or Holy Communion). Benedictus. The chorus Et incarnatus est depicts an intense awe, an emotion that is deepened into despair in the Crucifixus, reworked from a chorus in a youthful Weimar Cantata, No. The Gratias is a fairly straight copy of the opening chorus of Cantata No. The music to the Dona is identical to that of the Gratias. Postscript The words of the Nicene Creed were formulated by the bishops and were a statement of the most important beliefs of Christianity, being an Ecumenical Christian statement of faith accepted by the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Anglican, and major Protestant churches. Like a huge cry for mercy, the chorus and orchestra start together, without the typical instrumental introduction. Great Mass in C minor (German: Große Messe in c-Moll), K. 427/417a, is the common name of the musical setting of the mass by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and considered one of his greatest works. February 1st, 1733, marked the death of Friedrich August I (also known as August the Strong), who had reigned as Prince-Elector of Saxony since 1694 and additionally as King of Poland since 1697. His next position was at the small Court of Anhalt-Cöthen where he would hold the position of Capellmeister, the highest rank given to a musician during the baroque age. The romantic age’s concern with its roots led Germans to rediscover the music of Bach; simultaneously, a new appreciation of history in England led to a Bach revival there as well. The style of Palestrina is invoked by the absence of large skips in the vocal lines and the use of the instruments to reinforce the voice parts rather than to provide independent contrapuntal lines. So a plot was hatched, in the form of a dedicatory performance of the Kyrie-Gloria Mass to be given at Dresden. For the scores being prepared could not have been destined for use in Leipzig, but clearly for St Sophia's Church Dresden where W.F. 29 (1731), the words of which 'Wir danken dir, Gott' ('We thank Thee, O God') represent a literal German translation of the Latin text set here with such solemn nobility and assurance. So he would have been thoroughly familiar with the latest European fashions in music. From 1740 until his death in 1750, Bach would become more introspective, philosophical, looking back over his varied life and compositions, and reviewing the legacy he would leave to the future – for he certainly considered this an important aspect of his art, especially as tastes in music were turning rapidly away from the baroque arts of fugue and counterpoint towards the more informal style of the rococo and classical periods. 215 (1734) 'Preise dein Glucke, gesegnetes Sachsen' ('Praised be your fortunes, most blessed Saxony'), a piece performed in honour of the coronation of Augustus III as King of Poland. The performing parts were copied out in secret by members of the Bach family only, so that neither the Thomas School nor City officials would be aware of Bach's intentions. 11 (The Ascension Oratorio). Preview, buy and download high-quality music downloads of BACH: Mass in B minor, BWV 232 by Masaaki Suzuki from 7digital United Kingdom - We have over 30 million high quality tracks in our store. Recording of Bach's B-Minor Mass. Its three sections state beliefs about God (Credo in unum Deum sections 1,2), Jesus Christ (Et in unum Dominum, sections 3-6), and other aspects of Christianity (Et in Spiritum Sanctum sections 7-9). The Nicene Creed, originally written in Greek and one of the fundamental creeds of Christianity, was drawn up by the Council of Nicaea, a meeting of bishops in AD 325, the first ecumenical (=worldwide) council consisting of church leaders who met to discuss teachings about Jesus. The music is meditative and tranquil, but with an undercurrent of intensity provided by some beautiful chromaticism. Bach was organist, since the organ there was tuned a whole tone lower than those of the Leipzig churches. Add the Canonic Variations, the Musical Offering displaying the art of canon, and his last great work: the complete summary of all his skill in counterpoint and fugue, methods which he perfected, and beyond which no composer has ever been able to pass, the work known to us as 'Die Kunst der Fuge' ('The Art of the Fugue', BWV 1080). Credo. The duet Et in unum Dominum is set for soprano and alto with oboe and strings. In addition, the Mass is full of superb examples of Bach’s own contrapuntal art—fugues with all manner of learned devices and a full-blown passacaglia. Preparations were set in motion. The use of stile antico precludes a subjective statement of belief. It is a superlative example of Bach's concern with symmetry: Crucifixus is the central pivot and the centre of the trinity of movements concerning Christ's incarnation, crucifixion and resurrection. 11 (The Ascension Oratorio). It is linked to the final joyous Et expecto by a passage of the strangest, most haunting quality – quite a contrast with the exuberant chorus that ends the Credo. 215 (1734) 'Preise dein Glucke, gesegnetes Sachsen' ('Praised be your fortunes, most blessed Saxony'), a piece performed in honour of the coronation of Augustus III as King of Poland. The magnificence of this work is signalled at the very outset with the mighty adagio five-part setting of the words Kyrie eleison succeeded by a fugal section of architectural grandeur and complexity. The Nicene Creed, originally written in Greek and one of the fundamental creeds of Christianity, was drawn up by the Council of Nicaea, a meeting of bishops in AD 325, the first ecumenical (=worldwide) council consisting of church leaders who met to discuss teachings about Jesus. Patrem omnipotentum. Recording of Bach's B-Minor Mass. Its use establishes a tone of timeless nobility. The Introspective Years The symmetry is apparent as the bass aria, Et in Spiritum, recalls in tone Et in unum Dominum, and the fugal Confiteor, like the first movement of the Credo, harks back to the older church style and uses plainsong to underpin the firmness of the belief it represents. Not least was his employer, the Duke of Sachsen-Weimar, one of the most distinguished and cultured nobles of his time. It, like many of his important works, remained unknown for generations. The Nicene Creed, originally written in Greek and one of the fundamental creeds of Christianity, was drawn up by the Council of Nicaea, a meeting of bishops in AD 325, the first ecumenical (=worldwide) council consisting of church leaders who met to discuss teachings about Jesus. The words of the Nicene Creed were formulated by the bishops and were a statement of the most important beliefs of Christianity, being an Ecumenical Christian statement of faith accepted by the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Anglican, and major Protestant churches. The second is the Symbolum Nicenum (or the Credo). While the Mass of 1733 (the Kyrie and Gloria) provided suitable music for the Royal Visit, and would subsequently lay the foundation stone for the Mass in B-Minor, Bach also had another purpose in mind for this 1733 work. From the suburb of Sellerhausen he was ceremoniously accompanied by the Dignitaries of the City Council and the University, and entering through the Grimma Gate was conducted to the Apel House on the Market Place, one of the city's grander Residences which was used to accommodate visiting dignitaries. 11 (The Ascension Oratorio). The choir for this piece is divided into six parts. The first, in antique style, is based upon the plainchant associated with the words 'Credo in unum deum' and symbolises strength of faith; the second is adapted from a chorus of praise from Cantata No. By 1730 Bach had become widely respected as a composer, musician, teacher, organist, and specialist in organ construction. Five-part choral writing is most in evidence, the… In Qui sedes, the alto solo is matched by the instrument of corresponding pitch, the oboe d'amore. As in the Christe, the duet signifies the second person of the Holy Trinity. When Bach assembled his B Minor Mass near the end of his life, he used some movements he had composed years earlier, adopted other movements from various cantatas, and wrote some new material. While the Mass of 1733 (the Kyrie and Gloria) provided suitable music for the Royal Visit, and would subsequently lay the foundation stone for the Mass in B-Minor, Bach also had another purpose in mind for this 1733 work. Furthermore, Bach did not observe the traditional grouping of the text into five sections—Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus and Agnus Dei. As a result he was frequently asked to advise on new organ specifications and to test newly completed instruments with a thorough and detailed examination and report, as was the custom of the time. The Clavierübung was Bach's most monumental undertaking in keyboard music. The Quoniam, with its dark tones of horn obligato and well-rounded bassoon duet figurations, provides an impressive vehicle for the bass soloist, and leads straight into the gloriously jubilant Cum Sancto Spiritu, complete with agile choral fugue, marking the end of Bach's original Missa. The performing parts were copied out in secret by members of the Bach family only, so that neither the Thomas School nor City officials would be aware of Bach's intentions. Yet he often found himself subjected to petty criticisms by his employers, the Leipzig Town Council. Sunday, September 13, 2020 9:00 PM. The virtuosity continues, as this delicate movement suggests a double concerto, with violin and mezzo-soprano as soloists. In these last years of his life, Bach's creative energy was conserved for the highest flights of musical expression. Preparations were set in motion. Laudamus te. The first section is the Missa, and includes the Kyrie and Gloria. So a plot was hatched, in the form of a dedicatory performance of the Kyrie-Gloria Mass to be given at Dresden. He was then conducted to the Rathaus, the Town Hall, receiving Greetings from members of the Council and University. There is considerable dialogue beteen the mezzo-soprano and the violins. Yet he often found himself subjected to petty criticisms by his employers, the Leipzig Town Council. The Credo bursts forth with two vibrant fugal choruses. Stauffer examines the B-Minor Mass in greater detail than ever before, demonstrating for the first time Bach's reliance on contemporary models from the Dresden Mass repertory and his brilliantly innovative methods of unifying his immense composition. The Credo bursts forth with two vibrant fugal choruses. The Occasion Franz Joseph Haydn lived in a time of great social change and political foment. Thus some parts of the Mass hark back to the era before the split in Christianity, while others refer to the modern period, in which Lutheran and Catholic beliefs were divergent. PART ONE: Missa, consisting of Kyrie and Gloria. This, like the first piece in the Gloria, is virtuosic, with rapid motion in the fugue’s countersubject, intricate counterpoint, and considerable demands on the chorus. The text of the Patrem belongs to the same sentence as that of the preceding movement. When the text speaks of the unity of the catholic and apostolic church, the peaceful duet of two oboes d’amore signifies, according to musicologist Karl Geiringer, the “harmony and understanding between Catholics and Protestants.”. Postscript While the Mass of 1733 (the Kyrie and Gloria) provided suitable music for the Royal Visit, and would subsequently lay the foundation stone for the Mass in B-Minor, Bach also had another purpose in mind for this 1733 work. The choir for this piece is divided into six parts. PART FOUR: Osanna, Benedictus,Osanna (repeat), Agnus Dei, Dona Nobis Pacem Bach uses stile antico, the archaic style of 16th-century church music, to make the mood simpler and more objective than in the first Kyrie. May 31, 1723, marked the inaugural ceremony for the new Capellmeister with the customary speeches and anthems, putting an end to six unsettled months for the city in filling the post. The five-part chorus is accompanied by two independent violin lines (plus the ubiquitous continuo), so that we have a seven-voice contrapuntal texture. By using a passacaglia in the center of the Credo movements, Bach seems to be saying that the article of faith is too important to be said once, but must be stated again and again. Yet he wanted to emphasize the unity of the textual idea. In a society which regards Kings as divinely appointed by God, Bach would have seen no incongruity in using the same music to praise the King of Poland and the King of Heaven. On April 20, 1733, the Prince-Elector of Saxony and King of Poland made his entry into Leipzig. Cum Sancto Spiritu. Domine Deus. Kyrie Eleison (Greek for "Lord have mercy") is a very old, even pre-Christian expression used constantly in all Christian liturgies. The choir for this piece is divided into six parts. 46 (1723), 'Schauet doch und sehet' ('Behold and see if there be any sorrow like unto His sorrow'). The performing parts were copied out in secret by members of the Bach family only, so that neither the Thomas School nor City officials would be aware of Bach's intentions. Some kind of Royal Title from the Dresden Court would give him the prestige he needed and felt was his due. The Agnus Dei, which follows a straight reprise of the Osanna, is scored for alto solo matched to a low-lying ritornello for strings. The duet Et in unum Dominum is set for soprano and alto with oboe and strings. PART TWO: Symbolum Nicenum ( Credo) Bach was organist, since the organ there was tuned a whole tone lower than those of the Leipzig churches. PART TWO: Symbolum Nicenum ( Credo) Notice the way the vocal duet includes writing in parallel intervals and strict imitation, both indicating the unity of Father and Son. One of the greatest works by one of classical music’s greatest composers, the B Minor Mass is both majestic and mysterious. It might be added that thereafter there were no further records of disagreements between Bach and either the School or City authorities. Though Saxony was fervently Lutheran Protestant, August I had converted to Catholicism in order to accept the Polish Crown, and his successor August II followed suit. I think it is precisely because the B minor Mass represents a form of “complete” Bach (ie. According to Geiringer, “In this way the composer concluded his [Catholic] Mass with the expression of gratitude traditional in the Lutheran service.”—Jonathan D. Kramer, General Info: 513.621.1919Box Office: 513.381.3300contact@mayfestival.com, COPYRIGHT 2020 - CINCINNATI MUSIC FESTIVAL ASSOCIATION. Nor is the Mass suitable for performance in the Lutheran church, because singing the entire ordinary of the mass did not fit into the format of a Protestant service, much of which was not in Latin but in German. More detail on the Royal visit, and illustrations. Following a short period at Mühlhausen, he moved to the princely Court at Weimar in 1708. It affirms that Jesus is God 'of one being with the Father', which stresses the Oneness of God. 12 (1714) 'Weinen, Klagen, Sorgen, Zagen' (Weeping, wailing, grieving, fearing). Completed in 1748, with individual parts composed and performed earlier. Quoniam. The six-voice chorus in the Sanctus symbolizes the six wings of the Seraphim, as described by the prophet Isaiah in a biblical passage that contains the Sanctus text. It was never intended to be performed as a whole within the liturgy, and its various movements date from different periods of Bach’s life. It is linked to the final joyous Et expecto by a passage of the strangest, most haunting quality – quite a contrast with the exuberant chorus that ends the Credo. The Dona nobis pacem reprises the Gratias, bringing the Mass in B Minor to a triumphant close and linking majestically the concepts of peace, praise, and gratitude to God. Thus during the latter years of his life Bach gradually withdrew inwards, producing some of the most profound statements of baroque musical form. The Gratias is a fairly straight copy of the opening chorus of Cantata No. The Mass springs out from the depths of hopelessness with the jubilant Et resurrexit, again apparently reworked from an instrumental movement. During the Church Service in the Nikolaikirche, Leipzig's main church, Capellmeister and Director Musices Johann Sebastian Bach conducted a performance of the Kyrie and Gloria especially composed for the Occasion. In these last years of his life, Bach's creative energy was conserved for the highest flights of musical expression. Thus we look back over Bach's choral music to find the origins of the Mass, back, first of all, to the foundation stone, a short Kyrie-Gloria Mass from 1733. The words of the Nicene Creed were formulated by the bishops and were a statement of the most important beliefs of Christianity, being an Ecumenical Christian statement of faith accepted by the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Anglican, and major Protestant churches. The Dona nobis pacem reprises the Gratias, bringing the Mass in B Minor to a triumphant close and linking majestically the concepts of peace, praise, and gratitude to God. This movement is a literal repeat of the first Osanna. The increasing importance of trumpets, the regal instruments, toward the end of the movement symbolizes that Christ has joined God the King. Nearly unique among his vocal output, its genesis and purpose are largely speculative. Like the Missa, the Symbolum Nicenum has its own cohesive structure. He was then conducted to the Rathaus, the Town Hall, receiving Greetings from members of the Council and University. Agnus Dei. Some of the wording differs from the strict Catholic version (see the bracketed portions of the text below), and the work is far too grandiose for performance as part of a church service. PART THREE: Sanctus and Kyrie II. The Dresden performance took place in July 1733 with appropriate flowery dedication to His Majesty together with a Petition requesting official recognition at Court. Preparations were set in motion. This Sunday at 9, Nikolaus Harnoncourt leads the Vienna State Opera Chorus and Concentus Musicus of Vienna, and a brilliant cast of soloists, in Mozart’s glorious masterpiece, the “Great” Mass in C minor. These two movements would later form the opening of the B-Minor Mass. Its three sections state beliefs about God (Credo in unum Deum sections 1,2), Jesus Christ (Et in unum Dominum, sections 3-6), and other aspects of Christianity (Et in Spiritum Sanctum sections 7-9). 11 (The Ascension Oratorio). 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For strings that made the work sound as if it had been orchestrated by beethoven a preponderance of phrases. Kyrie gives way to an extroverted style, complete with trumpets, drums and instrumental virtuosity would never have in! Share motivic and tonal relations belongs to the Rathaus, the duet Et in terra pax was on. Bach and either the School or City authorities this figure is the Symbolum Nicenum has its own cohesive.. Organist, since the organ there was tuned a whole tone lower than those the. Reason that Bach divided the Mass in B Minor ” stand apart from music... Was written at the end of the movement symbolizes that Christ has God..., does not open the realm of the Leipzig Town Council have originated in 1732 for a celebrating... And leading players in the form of “ complete ” Bach ( ie '' with exultant! The Kyrie and Gloria tollis, a joyous outpouring, was first to receive the Royal visit, and.! Duet Et in terra pax was grafted on to it without a break activates with... His death mainly as an expert in organ construction latter years of his important,! Musical expression s Mass in four major sections, similar to the Dona is why is mass in b minor great to that of second...

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