Shruti or Shruthi in Sanskrit means "that which is heard" and refers to the body of most authoritative, ancient religious texts comprising the central canon of Hinduism.  The texts of the Upanishads discuss ideas akin to the heterodox sramana-traditions. , "Veda" and "Vedic" redirect here. [note 5] In an alternate classification, the early part of Vedas are called Samhitas and the commentary are called the Brahmanas which together are identified as the ceremonial karma-kanda, while Aranyakas and Upanishads are referred to as the jnana-kanda. The Four Vedas of India are almost the oldest written documents in the world. Ayurveda of the Rigveda, Dhanurveda of the Yajurveda, Gandharveda of the Samveda, and the Sthapatveda of the Atharvaveda are respectively described as the Upvedas of the four Vedas.  Galewicz states that Sayana, a Mimamsa scholar, "thinks of the Veda as something to be trained and mastered to be put into practical ritual use," noticing that "it is not the meaning of the mantras that is most essential [...] but rather the perfect mastering of their sound form.  The Rig Veda most likely was composed between c. 1500 and 1200.  Witzel suggests that attempts to write down the Vedic texts towards the end of 1st millennium BCE were unsuccessful, resulting in smriti rules explicitly forbidding the writing down of the Vedas. Contents of … It means knowledge, in general, but the knowledge in this instance means absolute, intuitive or esoteric knowledge, and not logical knowledge, either rational or empirical. [note 1] The other three Samhitas are considered to date from the time of the Kuru Kingdom, approximately c. 1200–900 BCE. –. Out of these 30 manuscripts of the Rigveda are very important which have been included in the heritage list by UNESCO. This includes The vedas- the oldest of the revealed scriptures written by and for the brahman caste Upanishads- philosophical stories to help the reader understand sacred teachings. However, only the literature associated with the Atharvaveda is extensive. The Veda begins with a small book addressed to Agni, Indra, Soma and other gods, all arranged according to decreasing total number of hymns in each deity collection; for each deity series, the hymns progress from longer to shorter ones, but the number of hymns per book increases.  Many books of the Atharvaveda Samhita are dedicated to rituals without magic, such as to philosophical speculations and to theosophy. It refers mainly to the Vedas themselves. Moreover, in this Veda of 1824 mantras, except for 75 mantras, all the remaining mantras are taken from the Rigveda itself, in which there are references to the gods Savita, Agni, and Indra. Vedas are the supreme and supreme scriptures of Hinduism. " The concepts of Brahman, the Ultimate Reality from which everything arises, and Ātman, the essence of the individual, are central ideas in the Upanishads, and knowing the correspondence between Ātman and Brahman as "the fundamental principle which shapes the world" permits the creation of an integrative vision of the whole. The Vedas are the primary texts of Hinduism.  According to Jan Gonda, the final codification of the Brahmanas took place in pre-Buddhist times (ca. The texts were subsequently "proof-read" by comparing the different recited versions. The central concern of the Upanishads are the connections "between parts of the human organism and cosmic realities. Composed in Vedic Sanskrit, the texts constitute the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature and the oldest scriptures of Hinduism. The Vedas and Upanisads are called Shruti because they are eternal and without any human author. These were composed by the sages from time to time and they were collected. 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