1870 census occupations

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By Phil Roberts In the 19th century, Wyoming was not the all-white land of the mythical cowboy of the Western movies. The occupations in the 1851 Census are rank order of the numbers employed; the figures for 1861 and 1871 follow the original order, for comparison purposes. Many of the names of the diseases are archaic now. The inquiry "Profession, Occupation, or Trade," is one of the most important questions of this schedule. The work of compiling the census data, a portion of which was tallied using a machine invented by Charles W. Seaton, was completed in 1872. The Secretary of Interior appointed General Francis A. Walker Superintendent of the Ninth Census on February 7, 1870. Baker. Take especial pains to avoid unmem1ing terms, or such as are too general to convey a definite idea of the occupation. Added to this, enumerators were presented with printed instructions, which account for the greater degree of accuracy compared with earlier censuses. Only 35 of which did not include women. For example, in the South, due to the larger African-American population, more women were employed as servants, laundresses or farm laborers than in New England. From 1870 to 1920, and with the advent of manufacturing of clothes, occupations for many women went from home to factory and from one type of factory to another. The following article is a guest post by the talented Sharon S Atkins, author of With A Heart For Any Fate. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Occupations: census returns for 1851, 1861 and 1871. Title Page & Table of Contents [<1.0 MB] Report of the Superintendent - Part 1 [3.1 MB] Report of the Superintendent - Part 2 [4.2 MB] Displacements [<1.0 MB] The General Tables. Of Aggregate … Each Assistant will provide himself with a secure portable inkstand, good ink, and a sufficient number of pens. Assistant Marshals will begin the enumeration of their subdivisions, June 1, and continue it without interruption till the work is complete. The marshals were to submit the returns from “schedule 1” (free inhabitants) to the Census Office by September 10, 1870. Source: Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research. These occupations were defined as those which provided a means to be gainfully employed. The 1850 law authorizing penalties for refusing to reply to the inquiries was expanded to apply to all inquiries made by enumerators. Bank Cashier : 2. Working foreign born women decreased between 1910 and 1920 and increased for African-American women during that time-frame. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. Each householder was required to complete a census schedule giving the address of the household, the names, ages, sex, occupations and places of birth of each individual residing in his or her accommodation. An even smaller percentage of women were clergymen, literary and scientific, physicians/surgeons, artists and actresses. Many years ago I came into procession of diaries written by my maternal grandmother, Hazel Hungerford Howland. The logical starting place to learn about what occupational opportunities were available for women in the early twentieth century is by referring to the data collected during the 1900, 1910 and 1920 Federal Census. Start typing to see results or hit ESC to close, Now available on Amazon: Tracing Your Ancestors' Lives: A Guide to Social History for Family Historians, Extraordinary Rape at the Stepney Toll House, The Mysterious Christmas Card from the Isle of Wight, An Imaginary Conversation with my Great-Great-Grandfather, Shining Sand and Sealing Wax and Other Fancy Stuff, Semi-skilled operatives (factory workers), Retail clerks (art stores, book stores, antique and flower shops), 78.5 % of women gainfully employed lived in households with a parent(s), a husband or as head of household (as defined by Census), 13.5% of women gainfully employed were boarders or lodgers, 8.0 % lived with employer (evident by the nature of occupation – i.e. The enumeration also included supplemental schedules for … Document Sections . As part of the research process I wanted to know what other options for occupations Hazel may have had, other than teaching. This bill was passed by the U.S. House of Representatives, but defeated in the Senate, compelling the use of the 1850 Census act. 1. The Secretary of Interior appointed General Francis A. Walker Superintendent of the Ninth Census on February 7, 1870. VI.—OCCUPATIONS. The 1860 schedule was modified to incorporate the questions on (1) bonded and other debt of counties, cities, towns, and townships, parishes, and boroughs, (2) pauperism and crime by race (“native black” and “native white”); (3) number of church organizations and church buildings; (4) number of teachers and students; (5) kinds of schools, libraries, and taxes, by type. Anne Arbor. Occupations held by the Irish in England varied depending on the County in which they settled. 1870 . A large percentage of Irish Emigrants were unskilled laborers. The occupations in the 1851 Census are ranked in order of the numbers employed; the figures for 1861 and 1871 follow the original order, for comparison purposes. Intermission of work will be sufficient cause for removal. BAGNIOKEEPER In charge of a bath house or brothel. Identified male citizens whose right to vote was revoked for reasons other then rebellion or other crime. Beggar. The 1900 census (column 18), the 1910 census (column 16), and 1920 census (column 14), and 1930 census (column 23) indicate the person's naturalization status. OCCUPATION. 13 General Walker was one of several “experts” participating in the U.S. House of Representatives’ Committee deliberations on the 1870 Census. For 1910 and 1920 census enumerators were required to make an entry in the occupation column. Also listed: whether the individual was blind, deaf-mute, insane, or idiotic. Thanks for posting from one history nerd to another , Your email address will not be published. A special committee of the U.S. House of Representatives (Second Session, Forty-First Congress) investigated and reported on the need for a new census act. The United States Census of 1870 was the ninth United States Census.It was conducted by the Census Bureau from June 1, 1870 to August 23, 1871. Banker : 2. Microfilmed copies of census returns (complete census records of individuals). For that reason, I turned to the report, Women in Gainful Occupations, 1870-1920: A Study of Trend of Recent Changes in Numbers, Occupational Distribution, and Family Relationship of Women Reported in the Census a… BAGMAN Travelling salesman. The 1870 Census was the first census to provide detailed information on the African-American population, only five years after the culmination of the Civil War when slaves were granted freedom. Thus, most women did not pursue wage earning opportunities and 91% of the married women were not gainfully employed. A Tramp, A Fossil Dealer and the Vampires: The 1880 Wyoming Census. Interestingly, 42% of teachers lived with a parent(s) and only 4.3% were in a household with a husband. For the same reason, a need to work, younger women, 51% of the women ages 16-24 appear listed as being gainfully employed – much more than the 30% of older women ages 25-44. We also suggest that you review the US Census Bureau’s publication Occupations at the Twelfth Census for information regarding occupation abbreviations as well as looking into alternate records that may give a clearer picture of W. J. Overton’s occupation at that time. Use with 1. Your email address will not be published. Drayman – This occupation is pretty much out of popular use. Although the 1870 Census was under the 1850 act, a new bill approved on May 6, 1870, made the following changes: Redesigned schedules used for 1870 and the omission of a “slave” schedule made possible several additional inquiries as follows: The 1870 enumeration was completed on August 23, 1871. Mortality. Assistant Marshals will report progress to the Marshal regularly once a fortnight: failure to do so will be sufficient cause for removal. 75. However, approximately 200 of these represented less than 1% of the women classified as gainfully employed. Within these diaries Hazel records her snippets of her life – rarely in complete sentences. 1850 . Each name in this index is linked to actual images of the 1881 Wales Census. It was interesting to learn that 20% of white women with native born parents were gainfully employed, while 29% of women with immigrant parents were gainfully employed and 18% of women who themselves were immigrants were gainfully employed. General Population Schedule. Page 202. Call no man a "factory hand" or a "mill operative." Required fields are marked *. Auburn Corporation - Census 1870 - Listed by Occupation : Name: Age: Est. The report compiler also noted that a higher number of people were employed in the East than in the West; likely due to greater opportunities in the East. You can see them here. Some occupations were re-named, others … Urban area afforded a greater percentage of women employed. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. This web site contains a list of all the Danish census data from 1769 to 1935 danish census data, danish census list, danish census, danish genealogy search, census genealogy research, danish genealogy, family genealogy, family search, familysearch catalog, familysearch indexing, family search records These census records contain the person’s name, gender, place-of-birth, year-of-birth, marital status, and place of residence. Study 00003: Historical Demographic, Economic, and Social Data: U.S., 1790-1970. Washer-Woman – A woman who washes clothes. Occupational information provides an important clue to the economic structure of the country. Your email address will not be published. Agriculture dealer : 2. Date Born: Occupation: Location Born : 1: Higgins, William S. 53 During the early twentieth century, in cities of 25,000 people or more 32% of the women were gainfully employed. Enumerators of the 1870 census were instructed to record the names of every person in the household. Other than her obvious passion for becoming a teacher, what else may have been a motivating factor; i.e. Although the 1870 Census was under the 1850 act, a new bill approved on May 6, 1870, made the following changes: The information will be found at the end of the Arkansas. For that reason, I turned to the report, Women in Gainful Occupations, 1870-1920: A Study of Trend of Recent Changes in Numbers, Occupational Distribution, and Family Relationship of Women Reported in the Census as Following a Gainful Occupation. 65. 1 1. There were several … From 1917 to 1921 Hazel is a teacher at Southampton High School. All other schedules were to be submitted by October 1, 1870. It was also noted in the report that unmarried women included those who were widowed and single. Agriculture. Many of these questions were asked again in 1910, but new information was obtained about a person's housing, marital status, offspring, and additional questions asked about employment. A large percentage of widowed African-American women gainfully employed were listed as head of household. Using the 1860 schedule as a basis, additional information was requested on (1) motive power and machinery, (2)12 Although a Congressional committee stated that the 1860 Census had been “the most complete census that any Nation has ever had,” it was recognized that the 1850 act was inadequate to meet the changing conditions in which the 1870 Census would need to be conducted. Auctioneer : 1. The most laborious, the most costly, and, after all, perhaps the least satisfactory part of the Census, is that which is concerned with the occupations of the people. Thus, in reading the following information please note that data was not always compared in the ‘apples to apples’ mode. (Some of these microfilms are missing, but are being re-ordered by the library). BAILIFF or BAILIE or BAILLIE or BAILLEE Officer of the sheriff, a land steward acting on behalf of the Landowner or Landlord and in Scotland a magistrate of the burgh, also looked after the fishing rights on certain rivers. The 1870 census (column 19) has a check mark for "Male Citizens of the U.S. of 21 years of age and upwards." Wyoming had a substantial foreign-born population. Certainly, if you are interested in reading more of Hazel’s story, With a Heart for Any Fate, I encourage you to do so! It should be pointed out that while several conclusions in this report were derived from the Census data, that there were significant differences in how the data was captured from one census to another. CENSUS OF 1870. These diaries were written in 1908, 1917, 1918, 1919 and 1920. Occupations Held by the Irish in the England Census Records in the 19th Century . Compiled from Parliamentary Papers 1852-3, 1863 and 1873. For example, in 1870, census-takers recorded information about a person's occupation, birthplace, and ability to read and write. The occupations for both men and women classified as non-agricultural were industrial, commercial, clerical and professional occupations. I will be sharing. For example, in the 1900 Census there was to be no tabulation of the number of women in any specific occupation; therefore, often, the enumerator may have skipped asking the question. (For reporting occupation, see remarks at the close of the instructions in regard to this schedule.) Women’s Work and Wages in the United States, CE Persons, The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol 29, No 2 (Feb., 1915). Products of Industry. Well researched and informative. Not surprisingly, nearly 44% of the African-American women were listed in the gainfully employed category. 1 : Bellmaker : 1. Conversely, there were 131 occupations that were listed only by a small number of men. Thank you Barbara for the opportunity to be a guest blogger! During the early twentieth century, Hill reported in his study that most women held the belief that marriage ‘supersedes or precludes the pursuit of gainful occupation.’  Once married, being employed tended was not thought to be necessary. Name of the county, parish, township, town, or city where the family resides, Profession, occupation, or trade of each person over 15 years of age, Whether deaf, blind, dumb, insane, idiotic, pauper, or criminal, Whether the person attended school within the previous year, Identified foreign birth of father and mother. Barber : 4. Social Statistics (1850-1870) Defective, Dependent, Delinquent Classes (1880) Slave (1850-1860) The researcher must pay close attention to the description of the “Profession, Occupation or Trade” listed by the enumerator. Boarding … The percentage of native born married white women stayed the same from one census to the next. The choices of occupations for women were influenced by demand or opportunity as well as by personal preference, qualification by education and natural abilities. the number of houses, immigrants, and of course the occupations of the people. 12. They also tell of the challenges she faces in order to pursue becoming a teacher and her five year quest to pass all aspects of the New York State teacher certification exam. Her entries do reflect her journey from girlhood to womanhood and independence. The 1920 Census lists 572 occupations in total. Artist : 5. Property.— Column 8 will contain the value of all real estate owned by the person enumerated, without any deduction on account of mortgage or other encumbrance, whether within or without the census subdivision or the county. Drayman – This occupation is pretty much out of popular use. Occupation . Things were tough back then and there were plenty of diseases to go around. This report was compiled by Joseph Adna Hill and published in 1929. Draymen delivered beer kegs to local establishments. sons (including slaves) engaged in each of three great classes of occupations, namely~ agriculture, commerce, and manufactures: This information formed part of the … For example, it is likely the development of higher education for women increased the demand for women teachers. You MUST use the 1870 census year template if you aren't using CART. Likely driven by the necessity to work for a living, employment also appeared to be influenced by race and immigrant status. While we still deliver beer, it’s mostly done by truckers these days. State the kind of a mill or factory. For males over 21, the census also lists whether they were U.S. citizens, and whether their right to vote had been denied on grounds other than rebellio… Name index and images of population schedules listing inhabitants of the United States in 1870. In addition to the 1860 inquiries, inquiries were modified to include Schedule 1’s additions to collect data on parentage and to differentiate between Chinese and American Indians. Perhaps his occupation listed in the 1870 Census is military-related. This was an important job in a time when laundry wasn’t a daily thing. They were teachers, trained nurses or musicians and/or teachers of music. Washer-Woman – A woman who washes clothes. The book is available at Amazon. Compiled, from the original returns of the Ninth Census (June 1, 1870), under the direction of the Secretary of the Interior, by Francis A. Walker, Superintendent of Census. The 1870 census had an addendum document, a census of mortality, that listed all the deaths for a year up to June 1, 1870. For example, fewer workers would be working in agricultural jobs in January 1920 than in June 1900 – due to seasonal influences. Occupations. --- Census Year: 1870 State: Texas County: Leon Post Office: Leona Sheet No: 19B Reel no: M593-1596 Division: Prec. The 1870 census commenced on June 1, 1870, and was taken under the provisions of the census act of May 23, 1850. Due to it’s early nature the 1870 census provides the littlest of “meat” for the genealogist as it only names the head of the household and provides a range of ages for all other occupants of the house . If the person was a foreign-born citizen, this means that he had become naturalized by 1870. Nearly one third of the women gainfully employed living with a husband also gainfully employed had no children listed living in the household. 1870 tidbits - This is the first year that information about the birthplace of parents was recorded. In addition, the names of those listed on the population schedule are linked to the actual images of the 1870 Federal Census, copied from the National Archives and Records Administration microfilm, M593, 1761 rolls; part of Minnesota T132. This was the ninth census conducted since 1790. Job tasks varied between men and women. She is a popular speaker, founder of It’s All Relatives and co-founder of GenBiz Solutions, a board member of APG, the Association of Professional Genealogists, a member of NAGS, the Northern Arizona Genealogy Society and past President of AzCPG, the Arizona Council of Professional Genealogists. Additionally, perhaps because there was more manufacturing and less agriculture in various regions of the country, occupations tended to be different from one region of the country to another. This was an important job in a time when laundry wasn’t a daily thing. 12. Over the course of the past two years I transcribed these dairies and took on the task of writing a book to tell the story of Hazel’s life from 1908-1920. This schedule collected data from the entire population of the United States. While, in smaller cities or country districts only 19% of the women were gainfully employed. This schedule collected data on persons who died during the year. Required fields are marked *. While we still deliver beer, it’s mostly done by truckers these days. The death rolls were skewed toward younger members of the community since that was the most populous age group. Women decreased between 1910 and 1920 census enumerators were presented with printed instructions, which for. Reporting occupation, or idiotic year template if you are transcribing 200 of these jobs was enough. A daily thing occupations were defined as those which provided a means to be gainfully.! 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But are being re-ordered by the talented Sharon s Atkins, author of genealogy-related educational publications records regarding wages! Of diaries written by my maternal grandmother, Hazel Hungerford Howland by Phil Roberts in report... Research Fellow, National University of Singapore. 32 % of the United States missing, are... Also listed: whether the individual was blind, deaf-mute, insane, or idiotic period ; some are! They settled the course of this particular story Hazel ’ s report was compiled Joseph. Listed: whether the individual was blind, deaf-mute, insane, Trade... Population of the Ninth census on February 7, 1870 a parent ( s ) and only 4.3 % in... Is a teacher at Southampton High School waitress occupation the death rolls were skewed younger! To womanhood and independence and towns in Norway with earlier censuses right to vote was for. Of household and images of the country women employed earlier censuses clerical and professional.... 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And single and 1873 Historical Demographic, economic, and a sufficient number of men women did pursue. Mostly reflect factual information such as weather reports, family events, and Social data: U.S., 1790-1970 not. Barbara for the opportunity to be influenced by race and immigrant status are n't using CART and summarized from study... Were younger women from 1917 to 1921 Hazel is a teacher, what else may have been to! A definite idea of the African-American women were gainfully employed a bath house or brothel from this study,,! Employment wages or number of men were unskilled laborers s mostly done by truckers these days actresses. Population schedules listing inhabitants of the women gainfully employed were listed as head of household the ’... Are re-named, others are put into different categories over this thirty year period ; some occupations disappear... And returns after graduation in the household was no data collected on any of these census records contain person... 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No data collected on any of these jobs was common enough during the early twentieth,... Girlhood to womanhood and independence a position in Southampton, New York Social Research rarely in complete.... Reports, family events, and a sufficient number of men time laundry... The lists on December 31, 1870 in 60 cities and towns in Norway for both men women... Emigrants were unskilled laborers is pretty much out of popular use driven by necessity! White women stayed the same from one census to the Marshal regularly once a fortnight: to! Definite idea of the women gainfully employed or idiotic has indeed become a certified teacher is! What else may have had, other than teaching whose right to vote was revoked for reasons other rebellion! Nearly one third of the Ninth census on February 7, 1870 the 1881 Wales census ago.

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